An on-line archive of articles published in The National Science Foundationís flagship magazine from 1970 to 1992.
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All Articles by Ben Patrusky
Year (Volume & No.)TitleAbstractAuthorDownload
1977 (Volume 8, No. 4)Cell Membrane Research: Scratching the SurfaceTen years' effort has revolutionized understanding of cell membranes. Many questions remain.Ben PatruskyPDF
1978 (Volume 9, No. 6)Radiocarbon Dating: Extending Radiocarbon DatingThe use of accelerators as mass spectrometers puts the work horse of isotope dating on a new, more useful footing.Ben PatruskyPDF
1978 (Volume 9, No. 6)Spiders In Perspective: Unraveling the Top ArachnidThe meaning of spider behavior is yielding to inquiries by new kinds of arachnologists: behaviorists and ecologists.Ben PatruskyPDF
1979 (Volume 10, No. 2)Molecular Evolution -- Human Origins Special: Molecular Evolution: a Quantifiable ContributionChanges in genetic material and proteins help time the stages of species evolution. Methods for matching molecules.Ben PatruskyPDF
1979 (Volume 10, No. 5)Introns And Exons -- Unifying Themes Special I: Split Genes: More Questions Than AnswersThe realization that genetic information does not come off the DNA molecule in a continuous chain is raising fundamental questions for evolution as well as for biological theory.Ben PatruskyPDF
1980 (Volume 11, No. 1)Bioinorganic Chemistry: The End of a Chemical DichotomySnake chemists prowl the same range as `porcupine` chemists as the barrier between organic and inorganic chemistry comes down.Ben PatruskyPDF
1980 (Volume 11, No. 5)Peopling The Americas: Pre-Clovis Man: Sampling the EvidenceThe probable, the possible and the provable aren't all the same where the earliest inhabitants of North America are concerned.Ben PatruskyPDF
1981 (Volume 12, No. 1)Mobile Genes -- Molecular Biology Special: Gene Segments on the MoveJumping, flipping, dancing, and drifting segments of genetic material address such riddles as immunological diversity and cell differentiation.Ben PatruskyPDF
1981 (Volume 12, No. 4)Cell Interaction -- Cell Biology Special: The Social CellCells interact with each other in a multitude of ways. How much of what moves them is inherited, how much is encountered? Reach out and touch... The very early embryo.Ben PatruskyPDF
1982 (Volume 13, No. 1)Flexible Gender: The Gender ChangersMany lower-order plants and animals are hermaphroditic. The evolutionary and environmental conditions that trigger sexual elasticity are becoming clear.Ben PatruskyPDF
1982 (Volume 13, No. 2)Unisexual Vertebrates: Where Males Don't CountUnisexual vertebrates species that reproduce through clonal rather than sexual mechanisms, offer biologists a number of intriguing questions, not the least of which is evolutionary payoff.Ben PatruskyPDF
1982 (Volume 13, No. 3)Photosynthesis -- Plant Sciences Special: Photosynthesis: From the SparkplugLike student mechanics probing an engine, researchers studying the structure and function of photoconversion want to know how step follows step. One goal is to improve the system's efficiency. Mimicking life's little currents.Ben PatruskyPDF
1983 (Volume 14, No. 2)Plant Defense: Plants in Their Own BehalfChemical responses as active and precisely targeted as those of animal immune systems characterize the defenses plants mount against predation and disease.Ben PatruskyPDF
1983 (Volume 14, No. 6)Mutagenesis: Mutations to OrderMolecular biology can not only target sites of desired mutations, but can target and produce desired mutations as well. Protein structure and function.Ben PatruskyPDF
1984 (Volume 15, No. 3)Protolife: Protolife's Clouded BeginningsChemists and biologists probe organic macromolecules and inorganic crystals for their capacity to replicate and mutate.Ben PatruskyPDF
1984 (Volume 15, No. 6)Prebiotic Atmosphere: Before There Was BiologyConditions in the early atmosphere set the stage for life on earth. All that is needed now is to know what those conditions were. Free oxygen.Ben PatruskyPDF
1985 (Volume 16, No. 4)Molecular Biology -- Scientific Computing Special: Biology's Computational FutureFrom the form and function of proteins to the energetics of dynamic molecules, biologists' demands on computer science and engineering in turn are placing demands on biology. Automating scientific research.Ben PatruskyPDF
1986 (Volume 17, No. 3)Enhancers: Gene EnhancersDNA sequences that act on eucaryotic genes from great distances, regardless of their position within the genomes, play a significant role in the regulation and control of gene function.Ben PatruskyPDF
1986 (Volume 17, No. 4)Extinctions: Mass Extinctions: the Biological SideGoaded by a proliferation of persuasive catastrophe theories with which they cannot agree, paleontologists of many stripes are beginning to document the stories of the mass extinctions that have punctuated the evolution of the earth's life forms. The question of periodicity. Ben PatruskyPDF
1987 (Volume 18, No. 3)Homeobox: A Biological Rosetta StoneHomeoboxes, fruit of a crossing of molecular and developmental biology, are emerging as common elements in the genetic events that lead to cellular differentiation.Ben PatruskyPDF
1987 (Volume 18, No. 4)Positional Embryology: Development in the Embryo: A Matter of PositionMolecular and developmental biologists are finding that the response of a cell to its location within its environment is a significant determinant of what the cell will ultimately become. I: Choosing a model. . . II: . . .and making it workBen PatruskyPDF
1988 (Volume 19, No. 3&4)Greenhouse Gases -- Global Change Special: Dirtying the Infrared WindowMany more gases than just carbon dioxide are blocking the narrow band of wavelengths through which heat escapes the earth. The effect they have on climate feeds back into the system and complicates efforts to understand the impact. The ozone hole.Ben PatruskyPDF
1989 (Volume 20, No. 2)Transgenic Animals: Genetics In the RoundIn expanding their ability to engineer genetic change in vivo, geneticists leapfrogged simpler multicellular organisms and succeeded first with mice. As other complex organisms come on line, a revolution looms in experimental biology. Transgenic worms and flies.Ben PatruskyPDF
1990 (Volume 21, No. 1)Homologous Recombination: DNA on TargetAn array of ingenious techniques and strategies has enabled researchers to target genetic change with extraordinary precision. The upshot is less guesswork and more design in genetic engineering.Ben PatruskyPDF
1990 (Volume 21, No. 3)Heat-shock Proteins: A Biological ImperativeA ubiquitous family of molecules that protect cells against stress spans the biological range from bacteria to mammals. Their multiple roles and biochemical nature are yielding to research.Ben PatruskyPDF
1991 (Volume 22, No. 2)Plant Genetics: Drosophila Botanica (The Fruit Fly of Plant Biology)In a few short years researchers in massive numbers have turned their attention to a common weed Arabidopsis thalinia, the unraveling of whose genome promises a revolution in the plant sciences. The arabidopsis genome research project. Applying the results. Ben PatruskyPDF
1991 (Volume 22, No. 3)Mitochondrial Genome: An Essential Intruder (I)The endosymbiotic event that incorporated a visiting procaryote into the eucaryotic cytoplasm produced an interaction with the nucleus that is only now revealing its secrets. The maize massacre.Ben PatruskyPDF
1992 (Volume 23, No. 3)Intervening Sequences: The Intron StoryBy a series of intricately connected steps over the past decade-and-a-half, what began as a study of apparent nonsense sequences that inexplicably split eucaryotic genes has become an elucidation of the role of the introns that usefully punctuate them.Ben PatruskyPDF


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